“Oldest-old” patients, i.e. patients over 80 years, represent the fastest growing group of patients, especially in industrialised societies, but epidemiological studies are usually performed in patients under 75 years. Prof. Giannantoni reviews epidemiological data, specific aspects to be taken into account when diagnosing very old patients and common comorbidities. The prevalence of comorbidities, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, heart failure and diabetes, is high in this patient population. This has to be taken into account as certain conditions and certain pharmacological agents can have a negative impact on the bladder function.