Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is a result of prostate inflammation, frequently occurring in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Low testosterone is common in MetS. A randomized clinical trial was designed to evaluate if 24 weeks of testosterone therapy (TTh) in BPH men with MetS and low testosterone improve urinary symptoms and prostate inflammation.
One-hundred-twenty men with MetS waitlisted for BPH surgery were enrolled. They were categorized into normal testosterone (TT ≥ 12 nmol/L and cFT ≥ 225 pmol/L; n = 48) and testosterone deficient (TD) (TT < 12 nmol/L and/or cFT < 225 pmol/L; n = 72) then randomized to testosterone gel 2% (5 g/daily) or placebo for 24 weeks. At baseline and follow-up, questionnaires for urinary symptoms and trans-rectal ultrasound were performed. Prostate tissue was collected for molecular and histopathological analyses.
No differences in the improvement of urinary symptoms were found between TTh and placebo (OR [95% CI] 0.96 [0.39; 2.37]). In TD + TTh, increase in prostate but not adenoma volume was observed (2.64 mL [0.07; 5.20] and 1.82 mL [- 0.46; 0.41], respectively). Ultrasound markers of inflammation were improved. In a subset of 61 men, a hyper-expression of several pro-inflammatory genes was found in TD + placebo when compared with normal testosterone. TTh was able to counteract this effect. For 80 men, the inflammatory infiltrate was higher in TD + placebo than in normal testosterone (0.8 points [0.2; 1.4]) and TD + TTh men (0.9 points [0.2; 1.5]).
Twenty-four weeks of TTh in TD men with BPH and MetS improves ultrasound, molecular and histological proxies of prostate inflammation. This does not result in symptom improvement.