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Functional and safety outcomes after benign prostatic enlargement surgeries in men with detrusor underactivity compared with normal detrusor contractility: Systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Marcelo Langer Wroclawski,
  • Lucas Seiti Takemura,
  • Hugo Octaviano Duarte Santos,
  • Flavio Lobo Heldwein,
  • Vineet Gauhar,
  • Ee Jean Lim,
  • Yu Xi Terence Law,
  • Jeremy Yuen-Chun Teoh,
  • Thomas Reinhard William Herrmann,
  • Daniele Castellani


Men with detrusor underactivity (DUA) and concomitant bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) due to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) may present poorer functional outcomes after surgical desobstruction. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of BPE surgery in men with DUA compared with those with normal detrusor contractility (NC).

Materials and Methods

This review was performed according to the 2020 PRISMA framework. A comprehensive literature search was performed until May 7, 2023, using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database. No date limits were imposed. Only comparative studies were accepted. The primary endpoint was to assess if there was any difference in short- and long-term functional outcomes after BPE surgery in men with DUA and NC. The secondary endpoint was to evaluate the differences in perioperative outcomes and postoperative complications between the two groups. Meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager (RevMan) software.


There were 5 prospective nonrandomized studies and 12 retrospective studies, including 1701 DUA and 1993 NC patients. Regarding surgical procedures, there were eight TURP (transurethral resection of the prostate) studies, four GreenLight PVP (photoselective vaporization of the prostate) studies, two HoLEP (Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate) studies, one GreenLight PVP/HoLEP study, one Holmium laser incision of the prostate study, and one study did not report the type of surgery. We did not find a statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of perioperative outcomes, including postoperative catheterization time, hospitalization time, urinary retention, need to recatheterization, transfusion rate, or urinary tract infections. Also, we found no significant differences in long-term complications, such as bladder neck stenosis or urethral stenosis. Posttreatment bladder recatheterization and retreatment rate for BPE regrowth could not be evaluated properly, because only one study reported these findings. When we analyzed functional outcomes at 3 months, those with NC had lower International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS), lower quality-of-life (QoL) score, better maximum flow rate (Qmax), and lower post-voiding residual (PVR) of urine. These results were maintained at 6 months postoperatively, with exception of PVR that showed no difference. However, at 12 and more than 12 months the functional outcomes became similar regarding IPSS and QoL. There were few data about Qmax and PVR at longer follow-up.


In this meta-analysis, data suggest that BOO surgical treatment in patients with concomitant BPE and DUA appears to be safe. Despite patients with DUA may present worse functional outcomes in the short postoperative term compared with the NC population, IPSS and QoL scores become comparable again after a longer follow-up period after surgery.