Patients with nocturia are commonly referred to urology clinics, including many for whom a nonurological medical condition is responsible for their symptoms. The PLanning Appropriate Nocturia Evaluation and Treatment (PLANET) study was established to develop practical approaches to equip healthcare practitioners to deal with the diverse causes of nocturia, based on systematic reviews and expert consensus. Initial assessment and therapy need to consider the possibility of one or more medical conditions falling into the “SCREeN” areas of Sleep medicine (insomnia, periodic limb movements of sleep, parasomnias, and obstructive sleep apnoea), Cardiovascular (hypertension and congestive heart failure), Renal (chronic kidney disease), Endocrine (diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease, pregnancy/menopause, and diabetes insipidus), and Neurology. Medical and medication causes of xerostomia should also be considered. Some key indicators for these conditions can be identified in urology clinics, working in partnership with the primary care provider. Therapy of the medical condition in some circumstances lessens the severity of nocturia. However, in many cases there is a conflict between the two, in which case the medical condition generally takes priority on safety grounds. It is important to provide patients with a realistic expectation of therapy and awareness of limitations of current therapeutic options for nocturia.