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A Multicenter Randomized Noninferiority Trial Comparing GreenLight-XPS Laser Vaporization of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Two-yr Outcomes of the GOLIATH Study

Take home message

Two-yr data from the Goliath study demonstrates that GreenLight XPS Laser System provides a durable surgical option for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic obstruction. GreenLight XPS Laser System has similar safety and efficacy compared with transurethral resection of prostate but with better recovery parameters.

Publication: European Urology, Volume 69, Pages 94-102

PII: S0302-2838(15)00713-7

DOI: 10.1016/j.eururo.2015.07.054


The GOLIATH study is a 2-yr trial comparing transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) to photoselective vaporization with the GreenLight XPS Laser System (GL-XPS) for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction (BPO). Noninferiority of GL-XPS to TURP was demonstrated based on a 6-mo follow-up from the study.


To determine whether treatment effects observed at 6 mo between GL-XPS and TURP was maintained at the 2-yr follow-up.

Design, setting, and participants

Prospective randomized controlled trial at 29 centers in nine European countries involving 281 patients with BPO.


Photoselective vaporization using the 180-W GreenLight GL-XPS or conventional (monopolar or bipolar) TURP.

Outcome measurements and statistical analysis

The primary outcome was the International Prostate Symptom Score for which a margin of three was used to evaluate the noninferiority of GL-XPS. Secondary outcomes included Qmax, prostate volume, prostate specific antigen, Overactive Bladder Questionnaire Short Form, International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form, occurrence of surgical retreatment, and freedom from complications.

Results and limitations

One hundred and thirty-six patients were treated using GL-XPS and 133 using TURP. Noninferiority of GL-XPS on International Prostate Symptom Score, Qmax, and freedom from complications was demonstrated at 6-mo and was sustained at 2-yr. The proportion of patients complication-free through 24-mo was 83.6% GL-XPS versus 78.9% TURP. Reductions in prostate volume and prostate specific antigen were similar in both arms and sustained over the course of the trial. Compared with the 1st yr of the study, very few adverse events or retreatments were reported in either arm. Treatment differences in the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire Short Form observed at 12-mo were not statistically significant at 24-mo. A limitation was that patients and treating physicians were not blinded to the therapy.


Twenty-four-mo follow-up data demonstrated that GL-XPS provides a durable surgical option for the treatment of BPO that exhibits efficacy and safety outcomes similar to TURP.

Patient summary

The long-term effectiveness and safety of GLP-XLS was similar to conventional TURP for the treatment of prostate enlargement.